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1Ti_1:17  Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

Discourse on the most

quoted verse from the

Prophets in the New

Testament

Psalm 110:1 The LORD said unto my Lord,

Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine

enemies thy footstool.

These words are ascribed to David the King, and this assignment is accepted as fact by both the Lord Jesus and by the religionists of his day.  When the Pharisees and Scribes attempted to take Jesus in his own words and failed, Jesus posed this question to them, “What think ye of Christ? whose son is he?”  When they answered, “The son of David,” Jesus then retorted, “If David then call him Lord, how is he his son? “ using the Psalm of David, Psalm 110, to promote his argument.  His opponents did not question that the words Jesus quoted were the words of David.  Furthermore, it was accepted that these words communicated exactly what Jesus asserted they were saying.  Jesus used the well accepted tradition that Psalm 110:1 was David proclaiming Yahweh, the Eternal One gave commandment to David’s son to take his seat at the right hand of the Eternal One, until such time as all the enemies of the Son were subjugated to the Son by Yahweh.  The interpretation of verse one was the well accepted version of the conversation given in the verse, and not one of those antagonists of Jesus argued the point.  What they could not do was give Jesus a reasonable answer to his question, “David therefore himself calleth him Lord; and whence is he then his son?”  It was believed as fact that the “he” Jesus spoke of was the Christ.  “What think you of Christ, whose son is he?” Having then established that the “my Lord” is Psalm 110:1 is speaking of the Christ, the Messiah, let us examine the meaning of the Psalm and the certainty of the promises contained in its statement.  The Apostle Peter quoted this very verse to persuade those Jews gathered at the Temple on Pentecost, startled by the manifestation of the Holy Spirit by those Galileans, that Jesus was indeed the Christ spoken of by the Prophets and validated by the resurrection power of God Almighty.  Peter declared, “This Jesus hath God raised up, whereof we all are witnesses.  Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this, which ye now see and hear.” And though Peter used his eye witness report to substantiate his claim that God raised Jesus up from the dead, Peter did not rely on nor did he demand his audience rely on his eye witness report to establish their faith in God; for Peter went on to prove his claim quoting David, whom they all believed in, saying, “For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he saith himself, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thy foes thy footstool.” By the assurance of the words of the prophet David, Peter proclaimed “Therefore let all the house of Israel know assuredly, that God hath made that same Jesus, whom ye have crucified, both Lord and Christ. “ Did this argument work, was it effective?  “Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, and said unto Peter and to the rest of the apostles, Men and brethren, what shall we do?”  Those Jews who believed the words of Peter, perhaps some of them were even at the Pavement crying out to Pilate “crucify him,” and who were sensitive to the drawing power of the Spirit were moved by those words to point of conversion.  “Then they that gladly received his word were baptized: and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls. “ So then we see the Apostles interpreted the words in Psalm 110:1 to mean God, the Eternal One (Yahweh) had promised resurrection power and exaltation to His Son, Jesus, and in believing, those that hear them are admonished to identify with that death, burial and resurrection by repentance, baptism in Jesus name and reception of the Holy Spirit. Paul uses the same concept in Ephesians when he declares the monumental power of God towards us that believe saying, Eph 1:20   Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, With those words, Paul likewise declares that we, the church of God should know that same power that was wrought in Christ, by the resurrection of Christ. Eph 1:19  And what is the exceeding greatness of his power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of his mighty power, The word in verse 1 of Psalm 110 “till” conveys the message that there is a time-frame involved with the exaltation of David’s son.  It tells us God has a plan and that plan involves time and together with the words “I make” we can draw the conclusion there is a process that takes place over time, by which the purpose of God will be accomplished. Just as the words in Genesis 1:26 tell us that the making of the man is a process and one that involves time, so Psalm 110:1 signals there is a process of time involved in the exaltation of those who are exalted together with Christ. Gen 1:26 says, “…let them have dominion” Gen 1:26   And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion… It did not say, “Give them dominion.” God said, “and let them have dominion…” conveying the meaning dominion is something to be gained over time, rather than obtained instantly.  How do we know this is the case?  Gen 1:27   So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.  And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it”   These words tell us dominion was never handed to God’s creation, but rather man was to do what things God commanded him to do “be fruitful, and multiply and replenish the earth, and subdue it.”  No doubt it takes time to multiply, whereby we know time is an element in the process by which man will subdue the earth. There is a time element and a process that must take place in order for God to fulfill the words of Psalm 110 to David’s Son, the Christ.  That process from the time the words were recorded by David to his son, the Messiah took about 1000 years.  If we were to measure the time it took from Adam to Christ to fulfill the words in Genesis 1 that would add up to better than 4000 years.  To God it is but a moment; to us, as we read the record from Adam to Christ through the fathers and the prophets, it’s an eternity. The connection between the words of Moses and David is namely in the form and the content of the promises given.  To man the promise is in the intent of God, Elohim, to make man in the image and likeness of God.  To the Son of David the promise is in the intent of God, Yahweh, to place the Son of David, the Christ in the position of exaltation.  The first promise is based on the purpose of the Creator in bringing His product of the earth, Man into glory; the second promise is based on a covenant between Yahweh of Israel and the Son of its Captain, David, to bring the Christ into glory.  To accomplish either task God must glorify the one to whom the promise is given.  The chief difference between the two promises is not the fulfillment nor for whom is the fulfillment accomplished.  Both promises are culminated in the granting of immortality and eternal life to the recipient.  Both promises are to the same recipient, the man of God’s choosing, the Christ or Messiah.  What distinguishes the two promises is the basis on which the promises are given.  To the man, the promise is given by a faithful creator, who upon fulfillment of the promise will exalt the man to rule with his brethren over the works of the creator’s hands.  To the Son of David, the promise will result in the offspring of David ruling over the Kingdoms of the World, as the Kingly Priest.  We know by revelation of numerous other verses, such as Rev 5:9-10 that Kingly Priest will likewise reign with his brethren; so, the Son of David, the Kingly Priest, the Lamb of God will reign with those he, as the Christ has redeemed. Ultimately, Moses and David were speaking of the same promise, namely resurrection from the dead and eternal glory.  To be in the image and likeness of God is to be immortal and incorruptible.  As the Apostle Paul put it, “For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ:  Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.” When tied together with his words in Timothy and Titus we gain a powerful understanding that these promises were based on the purpose of God given to us in Christ Jesus from the Beginning, before God had even made an earth to get man out of. 2 Tim 1:9-10  Who (God) hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling, not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace, which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began,  But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel:   Titus 1:2-3  In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began;  But hath in due times manifested his word through preaching, which is committed unto me according to the commandment of God our Saviour; Psalm 110:1 is one of those excellent verses that has within its words, fruit jam-packed with juicy sweetness, ripe for the picking of the husbandman to distribute to the servants of their Lord.  As Peter put it, “Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.” When taking a survey of the New Testament books and epistles, one can get a grasp of how significant was the effect of Psalm 110:1  on the thinking, preaching, teaching and doctrine of the writers.  It is the most quoted Old Testament verse in the New Testament.  It is quoted 6 times by the writers of New Testament scripture; 3 times by Gospel writers when relating the story of when Jesus was questioned by the religionists of his day, once by Peter at Pentecost, once by the author of Hebrews to show the pre- eminence of the Son of God over the angels and once to declare the supremacy of his sacrifices as our High Priest compared to the Aaronic Priesthood. Then, we see at least fifteen places where the Gospel writers and the epistles refer to Psalm 110 without directly quoting it.  Numerous other places, then utilize the concept of the Son of David being exalted above all principality, power, dominion and might, and set upon a throne to rule the nations in the world to come.  I have listed for your reference the places in the New Testament where Psalm 110:1 is directly quoted and referred to. I Corinthians 15:23-28  The most complete explanation of Psalm 110:1 In verse 23, Paul tells us that at the coming of the Lord Jesus, those who belong to the Lord Jesus will be raised from the dead.  From the next verse, verse 24 we have the words, “then comes the end… afterward they that are Christ's at his coming.  Then cometh the end,… ICo 15:23-4 What comes next in Paul’s teaching is these wonderfully revealing passages: when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power.  For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet.  The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.   For he hath put all things under his feet.   ICo 15:24-26a Paul is telling those who believe God made Jesus Lord that God is currently in the process of making the enemies of the Lord Jesus his footstool.  This process will be working until such a time that every enemy is put under the feet of the Lord Jesus.  When the last enemy, death, is  put under him, then the process is complete. From the next words Paul teaches us what he considers to be the obvious. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him. ICo 15:26b Of course we knew that did we not?  We understand that God, the Father will never be in submission to the Son of God, Jesus.  David’s Son, while being made Lord of All will never be  Lord over God.  Just as Joseph ruled over Egypt, everyone having to answer to Joseph, Pharaoh  would never be under Joseph’s authority. Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater than thou.  Gen 41:40   When that day comes, the day when God has subdued all His Son’s enemies, placed them at the feet of the Lord Jesus, who currently sits at the right hand of all authority and power, expecting till this day come, the Son himself will, of course be subject to God, his Father.  This will be the final picture of all God is doing until the end of all things in this eon, this measure of time, carved out of eternity.  All things are in subjection to the Son of God and his brethren, and the Lord Jesus, with his brethren will be in subjection to God.  As the choir in Revelations sang: Saying, We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, which art, and wast, and art to come; because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned.  Rev_11:17    We would not know these things, though we ought to know them, had not Paul, using Psalm  110:1 as his key verse explained them to us.  Direct Quotations of Psalm 110:1 in the New Testament Mat_22:44   The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool? Mar_12:36   For David himself said by the Holy Ghost, The LORD said to my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool. Luk_20:42   And David himself saith in the book of Psalms, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, Act_2:34-35   For David is not ascended into the heavens: but he saith himself, The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool.   Heb 1:13   But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool? Heb 10:12-13  But this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins for ever, sat down on the right hand of God; From henceforth expecting till his enemies be made his footstool. Places where Psalm 110:1 is referred to in the New Testament Mat_26:64   Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. Mar_14:62   And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven. Mar_16:19   So then after the Lord had spoken unto them, he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God. Luk_22:69   Hereafter shall the Son of man sit on the right hand of the power of God. Act_2:33   Therefore being by the right hand of God exalted, and having received of the Father the promise of the Holy Ghost, he hath shed forth this, which ye now see and hear.   Act_5:31   Him hath God exalted with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins. Act_7:55   But he, being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up stedfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God, Act_7:56   And said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God. Rom_8:34   Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us. 1Co 15:24-28  Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet.  The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.  For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him. And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all. Eph_1:20   Which he wrought in Christ, when he raised him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the heavenly places, Col_3:1   If ye then be risen with Christ, seek those things which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God. Heb_1:3   Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high; Heb_12:2   Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God. 1Pe_3:22   Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him.
Psa 110:1  A Psalm of David.  The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. Psa 110:2  The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. Psa 110:3  Thy people shall be  willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth.
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